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第十六章 主谓一致
发表时间:2008-10-2 20:52:49 来源:荣县中学 编辑:ysg
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第十六章 主谓一致

 

    主谓一致(concord),是指主语和谓语动词要保持人称和数上的一致。英语中动词be的变化形式最多,如I amYou areHe isWe are等。主语I一定要用am的动词形式,这就叫“主谓一致”。

 

一、主谓一致的三个原则

 

   主谓一致涉及三个基本原则,即语法一致原则(principle of grammatical concord)、意义一致原则(principle of notional concord)和就近原则(principle of proximity)。

 

A.     语法一致

 

  语法一致是指主语和谓语在单复数形式上的一致关系,主语为单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式;反之,谓语动词用复数形式。

  My child has no intention of spending a vacation with me. 我的孩子不想与我一起度假。

  My children have no intention of spending a vacation with me. 我的孩子们不想与我一起度假。

 

B.     意义一致

 

  意义一致是说谓语动词的单、复数要取决于主语所表达的概念,而不取决于表面上的语法标记。

 

  1. 主语形式虽为单数,但意义为复数,谓语动词用复数。

  The only people who are interested in the book seem to be lawyers. 唯一对这本书感兴趣的人好像是律师。

  The majority of primary school teachers are women. 大多数小学老师都是女的。

  2. 主语形式为复数,而意义上却是单数,谓语动词用单数。

  No news is good news.  没有消息就是好消息。

  Billiards is becoming more and more popular in some cities. 桌球在一些城市里越来越受欢迎。

 

C.     就近原则

 

  就近原则是指当主语由两个或两个以上名词或代词组成时,谓语动词的数要与它紧邻的名词或代词的数一致。

  There is a square table and some chairs in the center of the dining-room. 餐厅中央有一张方桌和几把椅子。

  Either your students or William knows this. 不是你的学生就是威廉知道这件事。

  注意:

  一般说来,究竟何时采用何种原则,应视英语习惯用法而定。但在实际使用中,如果对上述三种原则捉摸不定,遵循语法一致的原则是一种比较稳妥的方法。

 

二、并列主语的主谓一致

 

A.     and 连接的并列主语

 

  1. and(或both... and)连接并列主语时,谓语动词通常用复数。

  A hammer and a saw are useful tools. 榔头和锯子都是有用的工具。

  Both industry and agriculture have been greatly developed these years. 这几年工农业大大地发展了。

  ①当and连接的两个名词是指组合到一起的一件完整的或成套的东西,或表示同一个人或一种概念时,谓语动词要用单数形式。

  The writer and teacher is speaking at the meeting.  这位教师兼作家正在会上发言。

  A needle and thread was given to her, but she could not sew the button on. 针线给了她,但她不会把钮扣缝起来。(a needle and thread 作为同一件东西对待)

  Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit. 早睡早起是个好习惯。(going to bed early and getting up early 被看成同一概念)

  Bread and butter is his usual breakfast. 他经常以黄油面包当早餐。

  A cart and horse was seen in the distance. 远方看见一辆马车。

  必背:

  英语中并列结构表示整体概念的有:

  iron and steel 钢铁

  law and order 治安

  bread and butter 黄油面包

  a watch and chain 一块带链的表

  a knife and fork刀叉

  a coat and tie配有领带的上衣

  aim and end 目的

  truth and honesty 真诚

 

  2. 一个名词为几个并列形容词所修饰时,这时主语和谓语动词的一致关系一般遵循语法一致的原则。

  Clever and slow students are treated alike. 聪明的和迟钝的学生都受到相同的对待。

  A black and white kitten was found in the garden yesterday. 昨天在花园里发现一只黑白色的小花猫。

  比较:

  A black and a white dogs are playing in the yard. 一只黑狗和一只白狗正在院子里玩。(两只狗)

  A black and white dog is playing in the yard. 一只黑白花狗正在院子里玩。(一只狗)

 

  3.在each... and each ..., every...and every..., no...and no...等结构之后,谓语动词用单数形式。

  Each boy and each girl has an apple. 每个男孩和女孩都有苹果。

  Every hour and every minute is precious. 每一小时,每一分钟,都很宝贵。

  No bird and no beast is seen on the lonely island. 荒岛上既看不到鸟也看不到野兽。

 

  4. 带有并列动词的what从句作主语时,要根据意义一致的原则决定动词的数。

  What he says and does do not agree. 他的言行不一致。(具体指他说的话和他做的事)

  What he says and does does not concern me. 他的言行与我无关。(泛指他的为人)

 

  5.在某些成语中,一些并列主语用and相连时,其后谓语用单数形式。

  All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. 光工作不玩耍,聪明的孩子也会变傻。

  Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. 早睡早起使人健康、富有、聪慧。

 

B.     or, either...or, neither...nor, not...but, not only...but also等连接的名词(代词)作并列主语时,谓语动词的单复数应根据就近一致的原则。

 

  Neither he nor I am willing to go shopping today. 他和我今天都不愿去购物。

  --Are either you or he to go there --是你还是他将去那里?

  --Neither is. --一个也不去。

  Not only the Writer brothers but also their father was there. 不只是莱特兄弟在那里,连他们的父亲也在。

  Not the students but their teatrers but also their father was there.

  被邀请去参加晚会的不是学生(们),而是他们的老师。

 

  C.主语后跟有as well as, as much as, no less than, along with, like, rather than, together with, besides, including, in addition to等引导的词组时,其谓语动词的单、复数按主语的单、复数而定,也就是说,谓语动词的数不受这些词组的影响。

  The teacher as well as the students was reading in the library. 这位老师和学生们一起在图书馆阅读。

  The students as well as the teacher were reading in the library. 学生们和这位老师一起在图书馆阅读。

  The manager, rather than the workers, is responsible for the loss. 损失的责任应由经理而不是工人们来承担。

  Nobody but three policemen was on the spot. 当时只有三个警察在现场。

 

三、单一主语的主谓一致

 

  单数的主语跟单数的动词,复数的主语跟复数的动词,这是符合语法一致的原则。但在实际运用中,往往会出现较为复杂的情况:

 

A.形复意单的名词作主语

 

  形复意单的名词作主语(即形式为复数,意义为单数),按意义一致的原则,用作单数意义时,谓语用单数,反之,谓语用复数。

 

  1. 许多学科名称,如mathematics, physics, economics, politics等,以及news等名词作主语时,动词用单数。

  Physics is required of every student in our school. 物理是我校每个学生的必修科目。

  News is traveling fast nowadays. 当今新闻传播得很快。

 

  2. 用作国名、组织机构、书名、报刊名等复数形式的专有名词作为整体对待,谓语用单数。

  The United Nations has passed a resolution to lift sanctions against Iraq. 联合国通过了解除对伊制裁的决定。

  The Times reports the news of the strike. 时代杂志报导了罢工的消息。

  Great Expectations was written by Dickens in 1860. 《远大前程》是狄更斯于1860年写的。

  注意:

  如果山脉、群岛、瀑布等名称作主语时,谓语动词用复数。

  The Great Lakes lie between the USA and Canada. 五大湖在美国和加拿大两国之间。

  The Philippines are in the western Pacific Ocean southeast of China. 菲律宾群岛在中国东南太平洋西部。

  The Niagara Falls are the falls on the Niagara River. 尼亚加拉瀑布位于尼亚加拉河上。

 

  3. 一些形复意单的名词,包括有成双成套部分的衣物或工具名称,作主语时,谓语用复数。

  My blue trousers have been worn out. 我的蓝裤子已经穿破了。

  His glasses are new. 他的眼镜是新的。

  注意:

  这些名词如用a pair of 修饰时,谓语动词用单数。

  The shoes are under the bed. 鞋在床下。

  The pair of shoes is under the bed. 这双鞋在床下。

 

  4. 单、复数同形名词作主语时,按意义一致的原则,用作单数意义时,谓语用单数;用作复数意义时,谓语用复数。这类名词有:sheep, deer, fish, means, works, species, Chinese, Japanese等。

  The (This) glass works was set up in 1986. 这家玻璃厂建于1986年。

  The (These) glass works are near the railway station. 这些玻璃厂在火车站附近。

  This species of rose is very rare. 这种玫瑰很稀有。

  The species of fish are numerous. 鱼的种类很多。

  Sheep are raised for wool. 养羊是为了剪毛。

  There is a sheep under the tree. 树下有一只绵羊。

  比较:

  当这类名词前有a, such a, this, that, every修饰时,谓语用单数;有all, such, these, those修饰时,谓语用复数。

  Every means has been tried out without much result. 每一种方法都试过了却没什么结果。

  All means have been tried out without much result. 所有方法都试过了却没什么结果。

B. 集合名词作主语

 

  集合名词表示有若干个体组成的集合体,如army, audience, class, club, company, crowd, government, group, party, population, team, union等。

 

  1. 集合名词作主语时,若表示整体概念,谓语动词用单数,若表示构成该集合体的成员,则谓语动词用复数。

  His family are waiting for him. 他的家人正在等他。

  But the man's family was small-only himself and his wife. 但那人的家庭很小,只有他本人和妻子。

  One third of the population here are workers. 这里人口中有三分之一是工人。

  The population of the earth is increasing every year. 地球上的人口每年都在增长。

 

  2. 有些集合名词,如cattle, folk, people, police, youth等,作主语时,谓语动词用复数,即所谓的“形单意复”。

  The police have caught the thief. 警察已经抓住了小偷。

  The cattle are grazing in the field. 牛在田野里吃草。

  Youth today are quite different from 20 years ago. 现在的年轻人和20年前大不一样。

  Some folk are never satisfied. 有些人从不知足。

  比较:

  几组集合名词作主语的句子。

  The team is well organized. 这个队组织得很好。

  The team are all tough players. 这个队的队员都很强壮。

  All the class were jumping with joy. 全班同学都高兴地跳了起来。

  The class is made up of 54 students. 这班由54名学生组成。

  The young couple is happy. 这对年轻夫妇很幸福。

  The young couple are quarrelling with each other. 这对年轻夫妇正在吵架。

  The village is at the foot of the mountain. 这个村子在山脚下。

  All the village are out to greet him. 全村人都出来欢迎他。

 

  3.有些无生命(表示物)的集合名词作主语,谓语用单数。

  All the furniture in my room is new. 我房间里的家具都是新的。

  Warm clothing is necessary in cold climates. 在寒冷的气候中,保暖的衣服是必需的。

  The machinery is driven by electricity. 这些机器是由电力驱动的。

  Has your luggage arrived yet 你的行李已经运到了吗?

  A lot of hiking equipment is needed here. 这里需要大量徒步旅行的装备。

 

C.代词作主语

 

  1.名词性物主代词作主语时,既可以用作单数,也可以用作复数,这取决于它所代替的是单数还是复数。

  Ours is a great country. 我们的(国家)是一个伟大的国家。(ours = our country)

  Your shoes are black, and mine are brown. 你的鞋是黑色的,我的()是棕色的。( mine=my shoes)

  2such, the same等指示代词作主语时,应根据其所指的内容来决定单、复数。

  Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man with great achievements. 爱因斯坦就是这样一个俭朴而又取得巨大成就的人。

  Such are her wishes. 她的愿望就这些。

 

  3.关系代词who, that, which等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与主句中先行词的数一致。

  Those who want to go for a picnic please put up your hands. 那些想去野餐的人请举手。

  Some of the energy that is used by man comes from the sun. 一些被人类使用的能量来自于太阳

  注意:

  one of+复数名词+whothatwhich 引导的定语从句结构中,关系代词whothatwhich的先行词是靠近它的复数名词而不是one,因此,从句中的动词应该是复数形式。但当one之前有the, the only等修饰语时,关系代词的先行词是one,而不是靠近它的复数名词,因此从句的动词应是单数形式。

  This is one of the best films that have been shown this year. 这是今年所放的最佳电影中的一部。

  She is the only one of the girls who sings best. 她是这么多女孩中唯一歌唱得最好的。

 

  4.疑问代词who, what, which作主语时,谓语动词可根据说话人所要表达的意思决定单、复数。

  Who lives upstairs It is Xiao Wang. 谁住在楼上?小王。

  Who live next door It is Li and Zhang. 谁住在隔壁?李和张。

 

  5.不定代词作主语时,有以下两种情况:

  some, all, any, none, more, most等词可以指复数名词和不可数名词,它们作主语时,视其文中的意义,判断动词用单数还是复数的形式。

  Now all has been changed. 一切都已改变。

  All are present today, Mr Li. answered the monitor. 班长回答说:李老师,今天大家全到了。

  None is so good as he. 没有人像他那么好。

  None are so good as those who are always ready to help others. 没有人像那些总是乐于助人的人那么好。

  提示:

  在口语中,none of + 复数名词作主语,谓语动词用单数或复数均可,要以说话人所想的而定。

  None of the telephones workswork. 这些电话都坏了。

  None of us havehas been to Dalian. 我们中谁也没去过大连。

  some, all, any, none, more, most等词接of时,若of的宾语为不可数名词,动词用单数形式,若of的宾语为复数名词或代词时,动词用复数形式。

  Most of his spare time was spent in reading. 他的大部分业余时间都花在读书上了。

  Most of the colour blind people are men. 色盲的人大多数是男的。

D.数词、量词作主语

 

  1. 数词作主语,不论指人还是指物,谓语通常用复数。

  About twenty know the secret. 二十人知道这个秘密。

  Six are missing. 丢了六个。

 

  2. more than one + 单数名词”结构作主语,尽管从意义上看是复数,但它的谓语动词用单数形式。但“more+复数名词+than one”结构作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。

  More than one person has known the news.  不止一个人知道了这个消息。

  More students than one are for your proposal.  很多学生同意你的计划。

 

  3.  one out of ten one in ten结构作主语,谓语动词应按照语法一致的原则,用单数。

  One out of ten was badly injured in the accident. 在这场事故中有十分之一的人受了伤。

 

  4. a +单数名词 + or two 结构作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。但“one or two +复数名词”结构作主语,谓语动词用复数形式。

  A word or two is missing here. 这里缺一两个词。

  One or two friends are coming for dinner this evening. 一两个朋友今晚要来吃晚饭。

 

  5. many a + 单数名词”结构作主语,谓语动词需用单数形式。

  Many a passenger was killed in the accident.许多乘客在这一次事故中丧生。

  Many a boy has been to the castle. 有好几个男孩到过那城堡。

 

  6. one and a half + 复数名词”结构作主语,谓语动词需用单数形式。

  One and a half bananas is left on the table. 桌上还剩下一根半香蕉。

  One and a half years has passed. 一年半时间过去了。

 

  7. “分数或百分数+ of + 名词”结构作主语,其谓语动词要与短语中of后面的名词的数保持一致。

  Three-fourths of its surface of the earth is sea. 地球表面四分之三是海洋。

  Two-thirds of the people present are against the plan. 在场的三分之二的人反对这个计划。

  Around 10 percent of the forest is destroyed each year. 每年大约有百分之十的森林被毁。

 

  8. plusand表示“加”,用minus表示“减”,和用times表示“乘”时,动词多用单数,但也可用复数。

  Two and two isare four. 二加二是四。

  Ten times five isare fifty. 十乘五等于五十。

  注意:

  from表示“被减”,multiplied by表示“被乘”或divided by表示“被除”,其谓语动词用单数。

 

  8 from 10 leaves 2. 108等于2

  25 divided by 5 equals 5. 25除以5等于5

  9. 时间价格距离等作为整体看待时,谓语动词用单数形式。

  Fifty kilometers is a long distance. 五十公里是一段长距离。

  Four thousand dollars is more than she can afford. 她付不起4000美元。

  The six months was a terrible dream for her. 6个月对她来说是一场恶梦。

  Only six days was allowed to make preparations for the final examination. 只给了六天的时间来准备期末考试。

  注意:

  若强调这类结构的复数意义,谓语动词也可用复数形式。

  Six years have passed since my father left home. 我父亲离家已经六年了。

  The fifty miles were covered by the winner in three hours. 优胜者花了三小时跑完了50英里的路程。

  There are eight silver dollars in the drawer. 抽屉里有八块银元。

 

  10.a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a heap of, a mass of, half of +名词”构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词要与短语中of后面的名词的数保持一致,这是因为of后面的名词是中心词,而of前面的量词是修饰语。

  Lots of damage was caused by fire. 许多损失由火灾引起的。

  Lots of goods were sent there by air. 大量的货物空运到那里。

  Half of the oranges are bad. 一半的桔子烂了。

  Half of the food is unfit to eat. 这食物中有一半不能吃。

 

  11. 在“a numbertotal of+名词复数”结构中,中心词是名词,谓语动词用复数形式。但在“the numbertotal of+ 名词复数”结构中,中心词却是numbertotal,故谓语动词用单数形式。

  A number of students are playing basketball on the playground. 操场上有相当多的学生在打篮球。

  The number of pages in this book is 900. 这本书的页数是900

  A total of 3000 letters were received last month. 上个月共收到3000封信。

  The total of letters received last month was 3000. 上个月收到信件共3000封。

 

  12. 在“a great deal of  a large amount of + 不可数名词”结构作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。但“large amounts of + 不可数名词”结构作主语,谓语动词通常用复数。

  A great deal of rice was taken from the country to the city by railway. 很多大米通过铁路从乡下运往城市。

  A large amount of money is spent on the project. 这个工程耗费了巨额资金。

  Large amounts of money were spent on the free way. 建高速公路花了大量的钱。

 

  13. the rest of + 可数名词或不可数名词”结构作主语,其谓语动词要与短语中of后面的名词的数保持一致。

  The rest of the students are watering trees. 其余的学生正在浇树。

  The rest of the wine has gone bad. 剩下的酒已经变质了。

 

四、其他情况的主谓一致

 

A.名词性从句和非谓语动词作主语

 

  不定式短语、动词的-ing形式和名词性从句作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。

 

  Doing experiments is a good way to find out answers to questions. 做实验是找到问题答案的好方法。

  To learn foreign languages is not so difficult as you think. 学一门外语并不像你想象的那么难。

  That I shall work with you is a great pleasure. 我能和你在一起工作是极大的快乐。

  注意:

  what引导的主语从句,谓语动词通常用单数,但所指的具体内容是复数意义时,谓语动词可用复数形式。

  What we want is more time. 我们需要的是更多的时间。

  What they need in that area are doctors and nurses. 他们那个地区需要的是医务工作者。

  What she left him are some old photos. 她给他留下的是一些旧照片。

 

B. 名词化的形容词作主语

 

  名词化的形容词指的是“the+形容词(或过去分词或现在分词)”结构,如:the brave, the poor, the rich, the blind, the young, the old, the sick, the wounded, the injured, the unemployed, the dying, the living 等。当这种结构作主语,表示一类人时,谓语动词常用复数形式;但也有少数的形容词或过去分词与定冠词连用指个别的或表示抽象的概念时,谓语动词则用单数。

  The young are more active than the old in the work. 做这项工作青年人比老年人积极。

  The injured in the accident is an engineer. 在这次事故中受伤的那人是位工程师。

  The beautiful is loved by all. 爱美之心人皆有之。

  必背:

  下列词属于表示抽象的概念,谓语动词需用单数。

  the latest 最新情况

  the unknown未知的事

  the rough  难处理的事

  the worst最坏的事

  the foreign  外国的事情

  the unreal不真实的事

  the lovely  漂亮的东西

  the evil

  the ugly 

  the mystical 神秘的东西

  the true 

  the false

 

C.倒装句

 

  倒装句的谓语动词的单复数应根据主语而定。

  On the wall were several famous paintings. 墙上悬挂着几幅著名油画。

  East of the city lie two chemical works. 城东有两家化工厂。

  Between the two buildings stands a monument. 两幢楼之间耸立着一块纪念碑。



来源:荣县中学  编辑:ysg
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